Most novice photographers are faced with the fact that their pictures are too dark or, conversely, overly bright. And sometimes it happens: when shooting a portrait in the room window to the background obtained the desired brightness, and a man - dark. In this article, we will tell about the exposure compensation, the easiest way to adjust the brightness of the frame.
Recall that in the brightness of the image corresponds to exposure. The automatic and semi-automatic shooting modes, it sets up the camera equipment.
WHY SOMETIMES THE CAMERA IS WRONG WITH THE PICTURE BRIGHTNESS?
Before you take a picture, the camera measures the brightness of the scene. In this SLR has a special device - the exposure metering sensor, which "looks" through the viewfinder with you. Sensor disposed on plane-pixel sensors, they measure the brightness in the different parts of the frame. The data from all pixels are analyzed by a processor, and it determines the exposure, sets the shooting parameters: shutter speed, aperture and sensitivity.
Incidentally, modern sensors distinguish more exposure and color. Therefore they are called RGB-sensors (red, green, and blue - the main colors in the construction of the digital image).
The mirror less cameras and SLR when shooting in Live View mode, exposure metering responsible for the image sensor. He, too, is composed of individual pixels and is able to distinguish between colors.
The cost cameras installed sensors easier, and advanced - advanced. For example, Nikon D3300 is installed metering sensor with 420 pixels and Nikon D750 - with 91,000 pixels. More advanced models of measuring exposure more precisely, they are better suited for shooting in difficult lighting conditions.
The camera has several modes metering. Read more about them covered in a separate article. The simplest and most universal form of measurement, installed in the default camera - Multi. If you are a novice in photography, be sure to use it.
Of course, the camera does not know which object is in front of him: a medium-brightness, bright or dark. It can only guess what story we're shooting. Therefore, automation often repelled by the general assumption that all objects in the photo must be the average brightness.
Examples of subjects in which the camera accurately determines exposure.
They prevail on the average brightness of the colors.
This approach really works well in most situations the set. But what if you shoot a man in the background of the window, the sky, the snowy landscape or a white wall? In such cases, the camera adjusts the brightness of the picture so that the light-colored background becomes an average brightness. Accordingly, the black background in the frame will turn gray.
Shooting with no compensation. Details on the monument were too dark.
Due to the positive exposure compensation +1, 7 EV managed to make the frame bright enough.
HOW TO MAKE A PICTURE BRIGHTER OR DARKER? APPLY EXPOSURE COMPENSATION
On Nikon cameras exposure compensation can be used in P, A, S, M (with some reservations) and scene modes (egg Portrait, Landscape). Exposure compensation is measured exposure levels. Exposure compensation +1 EV will make the picture one step brighter and -2 EV - two notches darker.
To make exposure compensation, press the button marked with +/- and turns the adjustment wheel.
At the same time on the monitor screen you will see the meter slider slightly shifted towards the + sign or the side with the sign -. The frame will be lighter or darker.
The screen of the camera Nikon D5500. Scale meter (highlighted in yellow) shows the brought exposure compensation in graphical form. Also, exposure compensation is displayed in numeric form (highlighted in green).
WHEN THE EXPOSURE COMPENSATION IS APPLIED?
Let us examine the example of simple situations, when most need exposure compensation.
A large number of dark objects in the frame, a dark background
When the plot prevail dark colors or dark background in the frame, apply negative exposure compensation.
The sculpture in the main pavilion of the Soviet Era. Original lighting, organized within the framework of the exhibition "Space: the birth of a new era." To effectively capture the light beam on the boy to a pigeon, it took negative compensation -2 EV.
A large number of bright objects in the frame, light background
If a block much light shades, white, positive compensation may be required. But here it is important not to overdo it; otherwise the white objects in the image remain only spot devoid of details (so-called hotspots). This technical marriage.
When shooting against a bright background needed positive compensation.
Positive compensation may be needed when shooting backlit portraits, landscapes with the inclusion of a bright sky, photographed in the winter on snow background.
Winter Landscape, against the backdrop of the snow. In such plots are often Automatic camera frame, it turns dark.
Help comes the introduction of positive exposure compensation. In this case, +1 EV.
COMPENSATION IN M MODE
In modern cameras Nikon has another interesting feature. In M mode operates Auto-ISO function. Hardcoded exposure value (shutter speed and aperture), under automatic control, we reserve the sensitivity. The camera itself adjusts ISO, focusing on the metering data. In such a situation for the mode M is fair to all that was said above about the intricacies of automation, and metering of the camera. When using Auto-ISO in M mode it is possible to make exposure compensation. In older models, starting with the Nikon D7200 is done in the usual way. And in the junior (Nikon D3400, Nikon D5500) has buttons for exposure compensation. However, in M mode through it adjust aperture, exposure compensation can therefore control through the quick menu, by pressing button I.
I button provides quick access to the menu screen with all the basic shooting parameters.
Compensation: how to make a picture brighter or darker
After pressing the button I just select the appropriate option, and make the correction.
The ceiling is illuminated in the main pavilion of the Soviet Era. The exhibition "Space: a new era." Exposure compensation -2 EV.
WHEN TO ADJUST ALL THE PARAMETERS OF THE EXPOSURE ON THEIR OWN?
Compensation is intended to amend the operation of the camera automation. But there are situations when automatic rather hinders than helps comfortable shooting. A large number of light sources, work in the dark or at slow shutter speeds - a reason to adjust the exposure manually.
The use of mixed lighting: DC (from the window) and pulse (glare on the wall). Shooting with the Nikon Creative Lighting System.
Using long exposures, work with light brush, and multiple sources of permanent lighting. In such conditions, equipment is even theoretically not be able to adjust the exposure, so it's time to set the camera to manual mode.
AS ALWAYS RECEIVE FRAMES REQUIRED BRIGHTNESS?
In conclusion, we present some general practical tips to help you avoid embarrassing faux pas with the frame brightness.
Always check that the only footage. It is better to increase. This will insure and from exposure errors, and by focusing on the flaws.
Take test shots. Let's say you come to the school play in which your child participates. Action has not yet started, but you have already taken place in the auditorium. Do not waste your time! Remove a few test shots, make exposure compensation, and set the other options if necessary.
Look at the histogram. Remember that on the display of the camera does not always work accurately estimate the brightness. Impartial tool - the histogram graph. Using them is easier than you think. Histogram devoted an entire article in our magazine. In a nutshell: the schedule should not be tightly cuddle or to the left or to the right.
The schedule the histogram on the Nikon D3400 screen. To bring it when you view the captured image, press the button info.
Please highlight overexposed areas. Experienced photographers know that even when shooting in RAW save the details of overbites cannot, and should be avoided.
Backlight overexposed areas in the Nikon D810 menu
When the backlight is overexposed overexposure portions blink.